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Senin, 05 Juli 2010


Senin, 05 Juli 2010
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(Suaka Margasatwa/SM) is a sanctuary reserve area characterized by its biodiversity and/or an area of unique fauna need to be maintained to let the unique fauna sustain.

The criteria of appointment and establishment of wildlife sanctuary:
a.Habitat and breeding site of animal species that need to be conserve;
b.Habitat of rare and or endangered species;
c.Has a high diversity and animal population;
d.Is a habitat of certain migratory species; and or
e.Has enough area as the habitat of the related fauna.

According to its function, wildlife sanctuary could be utilized for:
a.Research and development;
d.Limited nature tourism; and
e.Cultural activity.

Balai Raja
Bukit Batu
Bukit Rimbang-Bukit Baling
Dolok Surungan
Giam Siak Kecil
Gumai Pasemah
Gunung Raya
Isau-Isau Pasemah Register 19 and 24
Karang Gading/Langkat Timur Laut
Padang Sugihan
Pagai Selatan
Rawa Singkil
Tasik Belat
Tasik Besar/Tasik Metas
Tasik Serkap/Tasik Sarang Burung
Tasik Tanjung Padang

Dataran Tinggi Yang
Gunung Sawal
Gunung Tunggangan
Muara Angke
Pulau Bawean
Pulau Rambut (Waters area)


Ale Asisio (RTK.1980)
Danau Tuadale (RTK.191)
Kateri (RTK.77)
Tambora Selatan


Kuala Lupak
Pleihari Tanah Laut
Pulau Kaget


Buton Utara
Gunung Manembo-nembo
Karakelang Utara-Selatan
Lampoko Mampie
Pati Pati
Pinjan/Tanjung Matop
Tanjung Amolengo
Tanjung Batikolo
Tanjung Peropa
Tanjung Santigi


Danau Bian
Kepulauan Panjang
Kepulauan Raja Ampat
Memberano Foja
Pantai Jamursba Medi
Pulau Baun
Pulau Dolok
Pulau Kassa
Pulau Kobroor
Pulau Komolon
Pulau Manuk
Pulau Pombo
Pulau Sabuda and Pulau Tataruga (waters area)
Pulau Venu
Sidei Wibain
Tanjung Mubrani-Kaironi

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Sabtu, 03 Juli 2010

Tapirus indicus (Malayan tapir)

Sabtu, 03 Juli 2010
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Kingdom: Animalia, Phylum: Chordata, Class: Mammalia, Order: Perissodactyla, Family: Tapiridae
Genus: Tapirus
Malayan tapir

General Characteristics

Body Length: 185-240 cm / 6-8 ft.
Shoulder Height: 90-105 cm / 3-3.5 ft.
Tail Length: 5-10 cm / 2-4 in.
Weight: 250-320 kg / 550-704 lb.

The body colouration is unmistakable: the front part of the body (ending just after front legs) and hind legs are black, while the back has a saddle of grizzled white or grey. While this colouration seems conspicuous, it renders the tapir nearly invisible in the moonlit jungle at night. Young animals are completely different from their mature relatives, resembling brown watermelons with whitish stripes and spots on a chocolate brown coat. They lose this baby coat 4-7 months after birth. The thick hide is sparsely covered with hair, and there is no mane or ridge on the neck. The body is round and barrel-shaped, the tail is no more than a stump. The nose and upper lip are extended to form a short, prehensile proboscis. The eyes are small and beady, and the ears are rimmed with white.

Malayan tapir

Ontogeny and Reproduction

Gestation Period: 390-403 days.
Young per Birth: 1
Weaning: 6-8 months.
Sexual Maturity: At about 3 years
Life span: Up to 30 years

Breeding occurs in May and June.

Ecology and Behavior

Malayan tapirs are primarily - although not exclusively - nocturnal. They cover large distances in their search for food, making frequent stops to eat. Regularly used paths are used in these foraging excursions, and several may lead to bodies of water. Each animal occupies a large territory which overlaps that of its neighbours. These paths and territories are marked with urine, which is sprayed on small bushes and plants. When moving, the Malayan tapir walks slowly with its head down, which probably allows it to pick up the scents of other tapirs. Individuals also communicate with shrill whistles. The Malayan tapir is a good climber, scaling steep slopes with relative ease, and when alarmed gallops off with surprising speed.

Family group: Solitary.
Diet: Tender leaves and shoots.
Main Predators: Leopards, tigers, humans.


Dense tropical lowland rainforest in the Indochinese peninsula

Conservation Status

The Malayan tapir is classified as vulnerable by the IUCN (1996).


Tapirus is a Latinized corruption of tapyra - the Tupi name for the tapir (the Tupis are an aboriginal tribe from the Amazon). Indicus (Latin) of India: this name is misleading as this ungulate does not live in India, and was probably meant to refer to the East Indies (Malay Peninsula). Due to its larger size, different range, and unique colouration, this tapir is sometimes placed in the genus Acrocodia.

Literature Cited

Eisenberg, J. F., C. P. Groves, and K. MacKinnon. 1990. Tapirs. In Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals. Edited by S. P. Parker. New York: McGraw-Hill. Volume 4, pp. 597-608.

Mohd Khan bin Momin Khan. 1997. Status and action plan of the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus). In Tapirs - Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group. Compiled by D. M. Brooks, R. E. Bodmer, and S. Matola. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Available online at

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder [editors]. 1993. Mammal Species of the World (Second Edition). Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. Available online at

© Brent Huffman,
All rights reserved.

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Jumat, 11 Juni 2010

Pteropus speciosus (Kalong laut, Philippine Gray Flying Fox)

Jumat, 11 Juni 2010
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Conservation status
Vulnerable (IUCN 2.3)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia, Phylum: Chordata, Class: Mammalia, Order: Chiroptera, Family: Pteropodidae, Genus: Pteropus, Species: P. speciosus
Binomial name
Pteropus speciosus,K. Andersen, 1908
The Philippine Gray Flying Fox (Pteropus speciosus) is a species of bat in the Pteropodidae family. It is found in Indonesia and the Philippines. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical dry forests. It is threatened by habitat loss.
DISTRIBUTION—Two islands in the Java Sea, Indonesia, and the Mindanao and Sulu faunal region. Reported from Basilan (USNM), Malanipa (USNM), Mindanao (Zamboanga del Sur Province [FMNH]), Sanga-sanga (DMNH), Sibutu (DMNH), and Tawi-tawi (AMNH).

HABITAT—Virtually unknown. Recent reports from Tawi-tawi indicate that they are represented by at least several large colonies.

STATUS—Unknown; geographically restricted. IUCN: Vulnerable. CITES: Appendix II.

COMMENT—Includes P. mearnsi (Heaney et al., 1987); may be conspecific with P. griseus (Mickleburgh et al., 1992). Some previous reports from Cebu, Mactan, and Negros were based on subadult P. hypomelanus.

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Jumat, 04 Juni 2010

Golden age of Astronomy

Jumat, 04 Juni 2010
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The second half of the 20th century was truly a golden age for astronomy. Rapid advances in technology made it possible to build very large optical telescopes on the ground. By the early 21st century astronomers were using about a dozen telescopes with mirrors larger than 8 m (300 in) in diameter. Because it is much cheaper to build telescopes on the ground than in space, large ground-based telescopes with their ability to gather large amounts of light (think of a telescope as a bucket for collecting light; the bigger the bucket, the more light collected) are particularly valuable for studying the faintest objects. The most distant objects tend to be very faint, but they are very important for understanding the evolution of the universe. Since light takes a long time to reach us, the universe gives us a kind of time machine so that we can see what it was like when it was much younger than it is now. For the most distant objects observed so far, it took nearly 13 billion years for their light to reach Earth, so we are seeing them as they existed 13 billion years ago.

Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

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History of astronomy

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History of Astronomy, history of the science that studies all the celestial bodies in the universe. Astronomy includes the study of planets and their satellites, comets and meteors, stars and interstellar matter, star systems known as galaxies, and clusters of galaxies. The field of astronomy has developed from simple observations about the movement of the Sun and Moon into sophisticated theories about the nature of the universe.

Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

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